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A

Absorption
That light which when incident on a material is neither reflected nor transmitted.
Achromatic
Described as having no color (or hue) for example a neutral white, grey or black color.
Additive Primary Color
The additive primary colors are Red, Green & Blue. When equal amounts of light of the three additive primary colors is combined, white light is generated. Combining two additive primaries in equal amounts creates a subtractive primary color. See also: Subtractive Primary Color.
Angstrøm
A unit of wavelength of light. One Angstrøm (Å) is 0.1 nm (or 10-10 m).
Array
Multiples of light-sensitive elements in cameras, detectors or scanning devices. 
Average (Luminous) Intensity 
Applies to LEDs. The near-field luminous intensity for a non point source. Defined in CIE document 127 as being the intensity (luminous flux per unit solid angle) measured by a photodetector with an input area of 100 mm2 positioned at either 316mm (condition A) or 100 mm (condition B) from the tip of the LED source, measured on the mechanical axis of the LED. Average luminous intensity has units of candela (cd).

B

Bandwidth
See: Linewidth.
Black
The (near) complete absorption of light as a result of no (low) reflectance. In colorimetry, describes a color of low saturation and low luminance.
Blackbody Radiation
Radiation that is full or complete, containing all wavelengths. The spectral power distribution of light emitted from a blackbody is a function of its temperature only and is described by Planck’s law. See also: Color Temperature.
Blackbody Radiator
A source that emits blackbody radiation.
Brightness
That attribute of visual perception that describes the degree to which an object emits or reflects light. In colorimetry, brightness is used in the HSB color model – Hue, Saturation and Brightness. Describes the lightness of the color, on a scale ranging from black to white. Can be confused with saturation hence its use is discouraged. Can also be used instead of luminance – again its use is not recommended.

C

Candela
The SI base unit used in photometry. The candela is the unit of luminous intensity. The candela is one of the seven base units of the SI system. Since 1979, the candela has been defined as: “the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 Hertz and has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 Watts per steradian” (where the steradian is the unit of solid angle).
Candle Power
The luminous intensity of a light source having units of candelas.
Catadioptric Imaging System
A system that uses both reflection and refraction to achieve its focal power. While the relative powers of the lenses and mirrors vary from system to system, the use of the reflective surfaces to achieve most of the power, in combination with refractive surfaces of little or zero power, produces an image that has improved aberrational characteristics.
CBFS
Color Balancing Filter Sets
CCD
Stands for Charge Coupled Device. A monolithic, two-dimensional semiconductor (silicon-based) detector array. When illuminated by optical radiation in the range between approximately 300 and 1100 nm, produces a photocurrent, the magnitude of which is proportional to the level of light received. Each detector in the array is called a pixel.
CFL
Stands for Compact Fluorescent Lamp. See also: Fluorescent Lamp.
CGFS
Color Glass Filter Set
Chroma
The lightness of a color, denotes the degree of lightness or darkness. See also: Lightness.
Chromatic
Described as having color (or hue) – not white, grey or black.
Chromaticity
In colorimetry, describes the intensity or level of saturation of a color (hue) defined as the distance in the particular color space of a color from the neutral grey color with the same value.
Chromaticity Coordinates (CIE)
A numeric descriptor of color. Defined as the ratio of the three tristimulus values XYZ in relation to the sum of the three, designated by xyz respectively. It is normal to assume that the chromaticity coordinates refer to the CIE 28 observer (1931). For reflected color, it is assumed to be calculated for standard illuminant C unless specified differently. See also: x, y, u’, v’.
Chromaticity Diagram (CIE)
The two-dimensional graph which plots the chromaticity coordinates. For the CIE 28 observer (1931) x is plotted as the abscissa, y as the ordinate. The color space plots the spectrum locus of monochromatic radiation in the spectral range 380-770 nm.
CIE
The International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage). Formed in 1924, the primary international body responsible for the science of photometry and colorimetry. www.cie.co.at
CIE 1976 L*a*b* Color Space
A uniform color space adopted by CIE in 1976 that is used in the measurement of small (normally reflected or transmitted) color differences.
CIE 1976 L*u*v* Color Space
A uniform color space adopted by CIE in 1976 that is used when measuring the color as a result of additive mixing from emitters of light.
CIE Luminosity Function (Y)
See: Photopic Response.
CIE Standard Illuminant
Standard source spectral power distributions as defined by CIE for four types of light source. See Illuminant A, B, C & D.
CIE Standard Observer Function
See: Photopic Response.
CIELAB
The color space within which L*a*b* color coordinates are plotted using a Cartesian coordinate system. This color space plots equal color differences at approximately equal distances. The L* value denotes the lightness, a* represents the red/green axis, while b* represents the yellow/blue axis. CIELAB is that color space used in relation to the measurement of reflected or transmitted color.
CLFS
Calibrated Luminous Flux Standards - Set of 3
CMYK
Acronym standing for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & Black. See also: Subtractive Primary Color.
Color Temperature
A colorimetric concept related to the apparent visual color of a source (not its temperature). For a blackbody, the color temperature is equal to the temperature in kelvin.
Colorimeter
An instrument that measures the color of the light it receives. Applies to instruments that measure reflected (transmitted) light as well as to those that analyze the light emitted by a source. Applies to instruments that use RGB optical filters to mimic as close as possible the tristimulus color response of the human eye. See also: tristimulus.
Colorimetry
The science of measuring the color of light (emitted, reflected or transmitted) from an object with a spectral response matching that of the human eye. See also: tristimulus.
Color
Can be described as being one aspect of an object’s appearance. In colorimetry, color is a visual perception and is defined in respect of its hue, saturation and lightness.
Color Difference
Being the size of the difference between two colors in a defined color space.
Color Rendering Index (CRI)
A parameter which defines how well colors are rendered by different sources of illumination compared to a defined standard illuminant. There are fourteen special color rendering indices (Ri where i = 1-14) which define the color rendering of the light source when used to illuminate standard color tiles. The general color rendering index (Ra) is the average of the first eight special color rendering indices (which correspond to non-saturated colors). Reported on a scale of 0-100.
Color Space
The three-dimensional solid enclosing all possible colors. The dimensions of the color space can be described in a number of different geometries, which leads to various spacings within the color space.
Color Specification
Being the tristimulus values, chromaticity coordinates and luminance value (or other color scale) that are used to uniquely describe a color numerically.
Color Temperature
Color temperature defines the color of radiation emitted from a perfect blackbody radiator held at a particular temperature. Color temperature is reported in units of Kelvin (K). The plot of the chromaticity coordinates of a blackbody radiator with temperatures from 1,000 to 20,000 Kelvin is called the Planckian locus. Colors on this locus in the range from 2,500 to 20,000 K are considered to be white, with 2,500 K being reddish white and 20,000 K being bluish white (warm to cool white). See also: Correlated Color Temperature.
Cone
The visual receptor in the retina of the human eye responsible for daylight, color vision. There are three types of cones, each sensitive to red, green or blue wavelengths. See also: Retina; Rod.
Cornea
The transparent front part of the human eye.
Correlated Color Temperature
Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) describes the color temperature of those light sources whose colors don’t fall exactly on the Planckian locus (i.e. for non blackbody emitters). The CCT of a non-Planckian source is the blackbody color temperature that the source resembles most closely. Correlated color temperature is reported in units of Kelvin (K). See also: Color Temperature
Cosine Response
Describing the Lambertian spatial response of a perfect reflecting or transmitting diffuser whereby the luminance from or through the surface varies with the cosine of the angle subtended between the direction of view and the normal to the surface. See also: Lambertian.
CRI
Color Rendering Index, a CIE index describing the changes in color of standard test objects when the illumination is changed from a standard to a test illuminant.
Optical Power: or Radiant Power, the time rate of flow radiant energy, expressed in watts. Often, just the term “power” is used.
CRT 
Acronym: stands for Cathode Ray Tube (i.e. a TV screen)
CSFS 
Calibrated Spectral Flux Standards. Set of 3.
CSRT 
Calibrated Spectralon Diffuse Reflectance Standard.
CSS 
Calibrated Color Set Standards.

D

DAS
Diode Array Spectrometer
Diffuse
Describing the scattering (non-specular reflection or transmission) from or through an object. An object is described as being a perfect diffuser if it exhibits Lambertian-like reflectance or transmittance, which is scattered light obeys Lambert’s Cosine Law.
Diffuse Illumination
Light emitted by one or more sources and characterized by a high degree of scatter.
Diffuser
Often referred to a cosine diffuser, an object that exhibits Lambertian like reflectance or transmittance. Transmission diffusers are used in photometry to impart a cosine response at the input to a detector to correct for the effective illuminance of off-axis rays, or to more uniformly illuminate a multi-element detector. Thin sheets of ground glass (quartz) PTFE as well as the input port of an integrating sphere all function as effective transmission diffusers.
Diode Array
A detector that comprises a linear array of segmented photodiode detectors (normally silicon). See also: Photodetector, Photodiode, Spectroradiometer.
DM
Detector Multiplexer - Rack Mount or Bench top
Dominant Wavelength
Dominant wavelength is a useful measure of the effective wavelength of non-monochromatic light sources, in particular LEDs. It is defined in relation to a specified standard illuminant (usually Illuminant E, but this is arbitrary). It is a measure of the hue (or color sensation) produced by the light source. Not to be confused with peak wavelength. Dominant wavelength is normally applied to colored LEDs whereas correlated color temperature is applied to white LEDs.
DS
Detector Spacer - Available in Flat Black, Spectraflect® coating or Infragold® finish

E

EHLS
External Halogen Light Source - Dichroic or Rhodium

F

Far Field
In photometry, that distance from a lamp (called the photometric distance) where the emitter is considered to be a point source, usually at a distance of between 5-10 times the source diameter (although this is not the case for LEDs). Intensity measurements are performed in the far field, in which the inverse squared law applies. See also: Near Field, Intensity, Average Intensity, Inverse Squared Law, Point Source, Photometric Distance.
FCPC
Fiber Optic Adaptor - Flat Black, Infragold®, Spectraflect® and Spectralon® available
FH
Filter Holder
Fluorescence
The emission of light at a longer wavelength as a result of absorption of light at a shorter wavelength in a fluorescent material. Applies for that case whereby the emission occurs at the same time as the absorption. See also: Luminescence, Phosphorescence.
Fluorescent Lamp
A lamp comprising of a glass tube filled with mercury gas and coated on its inner surface with a phosphor. When the gas is charged with an electrical current, ultraviolet radiation is produced. This in turn is absorbed in the phosphor, causing it to emit visible light of fluorescence. See also: CFL, Fluorescence.
Footcandle
The English unit of illuminance (fc). Equals one lumen per square foot. See also: Illuminance, Lux.
Footlambert
The English unit of luminance (fL). Equals one candela per square foot. See also: Luminance.
Fovea
That part of the eye’s retina that has the greatest density of cones. See also: Retina, Cone.
FTS
White Fluorescent Standard. Glossy, Uncalibrated. Individual or as a set of 8.
FWHM
A measure of the extent of a function. Given by the difference between the two extreme values of the independent variable at which the dependant variable is equal to half of its maximum value. The term duration is preferred over width when the independent variable is time. Commonly applied to the duration of pulse waveforms, the spectral extent of emission or absorption lines, and the angular or spatial extent of radiation patterns.

G

Goniometer
A goniometer is a mechanical positioning device that allows one to change the relative angle (_, _) at which a photometer (also a spectroradiometer or colorimeter) views a light source. This can be accomplished by either moving the detector around a stationary source or by tipping and tilting the source whilst the detector remains in a fixed position. See also: Goniophotometer.
Goniophotometer
An instrument that performs measurements of the luminous intensity of a light source as a function of viewing angle. Can also be used to measure the total luminous flux of a light source by measuring the directional luminous intensity and summing over 4p steradians. See also: Goniometer.
GPS
General Purpose Spheres - Available with 3 or 4 ports
GRSS
Gray Scale High Reflectance Standard Set

H

HLT
Hemispherical Liquid Cooled Target
Hue
The perceived color of a light source.

I

IAS
Interior Access Integrating Sphere
IHLS
Internal Halogen Light Source
Illuminance
Illuminance is the luminous flux received per unit area. Illuminance is measured in lux (lx) where 1 lux equals 1 lumen per square meter.
Illuminant A
Illuminant A (CIE) represents the color temperature of an incandescent lamp (2856K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Illuminant B
Illuminant B (CIE) represents the color temperature of direct sunlight (4874K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Illuminant C
Illuminant C (CIE) represents the color temperature of an indirect sunlight (6774K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Illuminant D
Illuminant D (CIE) represents the color temperature of daylight. There are several standard illuminants in the D series including D50 representing bright incandescent light (5000K) and D65 that represents natural daylight (6504K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Illuminant E
Illuminant E (CIE) is the color temperature of an artificial, normalizing source (5500K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Illuminant F
Illuminant F (CIE) represents the correlated color temperature of light from a fluorescent lamp. There are several standard illuminants in the F series including F2 representing cool white light (4200K) F7 which represents broadband daylight (6500K) and F11 which represents a narrow band white lamp (4000K). See also: Standard Illuminant, Color Temperature.
Imaging Photometer (Colorimeter)
A photometric instrument capable of spatially-resolved luminance and color measurements. Employs a CCD detector.
Incandescence
Light that is emitted by thermal radiation at a temperature
Incandescent Lamp
A lamp that emits light when an electrical current passes through a metal wire in a vacuum.
Infrared
Describing that part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising optical radiation having wavelengths longer than 780nm but shorter than 1mm. Infrared radiation is absorbed in the eye’s cornea and so is not visible to the naked eye.
Integrating Sphere
A hollow, spherical chamber with a diffuse, high reflectance interior coating used in photometry to measure the total luminous flux (power) of a light source.
Intensity
Flux per unit solid angle
Inverse Square Law
Describes the relationship whereby the illuminance from a light source varies in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the source. Applies to the case of a point source of light. See also: Illuminance, Point Source.
Iris
The variable limiting aperture found in the human eye.
IRLS
Internal Infrared Light Source
Irradiance
The radiometric analogue of illuminance, the radiant flux received per unit area. Irradiance is measured in Watts per square meter.
IRS
Infragold® Reflectance Standard
IRT
Infragold® Reflectance Target
Isotropic
A source should be called isotropic when we wish to imply that it radiates with equal intensity (flux per unit solid angle) in all directions. Not to be confused with Lambertian.

K

Kelvin
Unit of measurement of color temperature. The Kelvin scale starts at absolute zero (-273 Celsius). See also: Color Temperature.
KI
Kohler Illuminator

L

Lambert’s Cosine Law
See: Lambertian.
Lambertian
A Lambertian surface is one that reflects with equal radiance or luminance in all directions. In other words, the reflected intensity from a Lambertian surface varies in proportion to the cosine of the angle subtended to the surface normal.
Laser
A light source typically characterized by a combination of narrow spectral linewidth, a collimated beam and a high radiant flux (power). From the acronym: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
LCD
Acronym standing for Liquid Crystal Display.
LED
Acronym standing for Light Emitting Diode. LEDs are solid state light sources which generate light by electroluminescence when an electrical current is passed through a semiconductor p-n junction.
Light
Light is a term that we use to define that part of the electromagnetic radiation that humans can see (“visible light”). More accurately described as optical radiation, it forms part of the electromagnetic spectrum that encompasses radio waves, microwaves, x-rays and gamma rays. Optical radiation is that which obeys wave-like behavior, as opposed to particle-like. Not all optical radiation is visible to the naked eye and falls into that part of the spectrum between microwaves and x-rays, having wavelengths between 10-7 = l = 10-4 meters.
Lightness
See: Chroma.
Linewidth
Denotes the spectral purity of a light source, the spectral width of a light source is normally defined as the full width half max (FWHM) bandwidth. See also: Bandwidth.
LMS
Lamp Measurement Sphere
LPM
Laser Power Measurement Sphere
LPMS
Laser Power Measurement System
LTRP
Light Trap
Lumen
The SI unit of luminance flux (l m).
Luminaire
A light source together with its housing or reflector.
Luminance
Luminance is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle and per unit area. Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cdm-2) where 1 cdm-2 equals 1 lumen per steradian per square meter. The photometric analogue of radiance.
Luminescence
See: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence. Luminescence can be taken to describe the process of fluorescence or phosphorescence.
Luminous Efficacy
The efficiency of a light source, the quotient of luminous flux divided by the total radiant flux. Reported in units of lumens per Watt.
Luminous Exitance
Luminous exitance is the luminous flux emitted from a surface per unit area, measured in units of lumens per square meter (lm m-2). Geometrically equivalent to illuminance, luminous exitance is not however reported in lux.
Luminous Flux
The luminous flux (more correctly, total luminous flux) of a light source is the total photometric power emitted in all directions. Luminous flux is measured in lumens (l m) which is the photometric analogue of the Watt.
Luminous Intensity
The luminous intensity in a given direction (often abbreviated to intensity, sometimes referred to as beam candela) is the photometric power from a point source emitted per unit solid angle. Intensity is measured in the SI base unit of the candela (cd, or mcd where 1 mcd = 10-3 cd) where 1 candela equals 1 lumen per steradian.
Lux
The SI unit of illuminance (lx).

M

MC
Motor Controller for Variable Attenuators
Mean Spherical Candle Power
Mean Spherical Candle Power (M.S.C.P.) is the luminous flux of a source divided by 4p steradians.
Mesopic
Photopic (cone) vision operates when the eye sees luminance levels of = 3 candelas per square meter, whereas scotopic (night time) vision operates when the luminance falls below 0.01 candelas per square meter. For luminance levels between 0.01 and 3 cdm-2, both rods and cones contribute to the vision process. This in-between region is called mesopic, and research is ongoing into the development of a standard observer function.
Micrometer
A unit of wavelength of light, normally used to describe infrared light. One micrometer (or micron) (µm) is 10-6 meters.
Monochromatic
Used to describe light that is composed of a single wavelength or color (hue) having 100% purity and a narrow linewidth.

N

Nanometer
A unit of wavelength of light, normally used to describe visible light. One nanometer (nm) is 10-9 meters.
NBFS
Narrow Band Filter Set
NDFS
Neutral Density Filter Set
Near-Field
In photometry, that region close to a lamp where the emitter is not considered to be a point source, usually at a distance of less than 5-10 times the source diameter (although this is not the case for LEDs). Intensity measurements are performed in the far field, in which the inverse squared law applies. See also: Far Field, Intensity, Average Intensity, Inverse Squared Law, Point Source.
Nit
A historically significant unit of luminance. Derived from the Latin "to illuminate". One nit equals 1 candela per square meter.

O

Optical Power
or Radiant Power, the time rate of flow radiant energy, expressed in watts. Often, just the term “power” is used.
Optical Radiation
Describing that part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising rays that exhibit a wave-like property (as opposed to particle-like). Includes ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.

P

PA
Port Adaptor
PCH
Powder Sample Holder
Peak Wavelength
The wavelength at which the radiant intensity of the source is maximum.
PFCB
Port Frame Cone Baffle
PFR
Port Frame Reducer
PH
Post Holder
Phosphorescence
The emission of light at a longer wavelength as a result of absorption of light at a shorted wavelength in a phosphorescent material. Applies for that case whereby the emission occurs after the absorption. See also: Fluorescence, Luminescence.
Photodetector
A generic name given to a device that detects optical radiation. See also: Photodiode, PMT, Diode Array, CCD.
Photodiode
A discrete semiconductor photodetector that produces a photocurrent the magnitude of which is proportional to the level of light received when illuminated by optical radiation. In photometers, the detector is based on silicon with a photopic filter; the combined detector plus filter is designed to provide a spectral responsivity scaled to match that of the photopic response, the CIE standard observer for photopic vision V(l).
Photometer
An optical instrument that measures a defined geometric property of visible light with a spectral response matching that of the human eye (normally the daylight adjusted response). See also: photopic.
Photometric Distance
That distance from a light source that defines the far field. See also: Far Field.
Photometry
The science of measuring optical radiation with a spectral response matching that of the human eye. See also: photopic.
Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)
A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is an optical detector that comprises a photocathode that is held in vacuum and emits electrons when exposed to light. This charge is accelerated by a high voltage field causing the electrons to hit a metal plate, whereupon more electrons are emitted (the multiplier effect). Not normally used in photometers, PMTs are commonly used as part of a spectroradiometer system.
Photopic (Response)
The daylight-adapted relative spectral response of the eye is called the spectral luminous efficiency function for photopic vision, V(l) (V-lambda). This is an empirical distribution, that was first adopted in 1924 by the International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, CIE). Applies to the spectral range between 380 and 780 nm having a peak of response at 555 nm.
Pixel
The individual detector element in a two-dimensional CCD detector array.
Planckian Locus
The locus of points on the CIE chromaticity diagram that plots the chromaticity of blackbody radiators of differing color temperatures.
Planckian Radiator
A synonym for blackbody radiator.
Point Source
A light source is considered to be a point source if it is observed at a position at or beyond the photometric distance, that is, the far field. See also: Intensity, Average Intensity, Far Field, Photometric Distance.
Polychromatic
Used to describe optical radiation that is comprised of multiple discrete wavelength or having a continuous spectrum.
PP
Port Plug
PR
Port Reducer
Primary Color
In colorimetry, primary (additive) colors are red, green and blue, and their subtractive opposites cyan, magenta and yellow. See also: Additive Primary Colors, Subtractive Primary Colors.
PSD
Photopic Sphere Detector
Purity
Purity is a measure of the degree of saturation of a light source, reported as a percentage. It is defined with respect to a specified standard illuminant (usually illuminant E, but this arbitrary). As most (colored) LEDs have a narrow spectral emission (that is, near-monochromatic) they have a purity of close to 100% (in other words, the color cannot be distinguished from a true monochromatic light source). See also: Saturation.

R

Radiance
Radiance is the radiant flux emitted per unit solid angle and per unit area. Radiance is measured in Watts per steradian per square meter (Wsr-1m-2). The radiometric analogue of luminance.
Radiant Exitance
Radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted from a surface per unit area, measured in units of Watts per square meter (W m-2). Geometrically equivalent to irradiance.
Radiant Flux
The radiant flux (more correctly, total radiant flux) of a light source is the total power emitted in all directions. Radiant flux is measured in Watts (W) which is the radiometric analogue of the lumen.
Radiant Intensity
The radiant intensity in a given direction (often abbreviated to intensity) is the radiant flux from a point source emitted per unit solid angle. Intensity is measured in units of Watts per steradian (Wsr-1). The radiometric analogue of luminous intensity.
Radiometer
An optical instrument that measures the absolute amount of a defined geometric property of light.
Radiometry
The science of measuring the absolute amount of optical radiation.
Reflectance
The percentage of light that reflects from an object. A spectrophotometer determines the reflectance as a function of wavelength. The reflectance from an object is of two types: specular and diffuse.
Reflectance Factor
Ratio of the directionally reflected flux to that reflected in the same direction by a perfect reflecting diffuser identically irradiated or illuminated.
Reflective
The ratio of the intensity of the total radiation reflected from a surface to the total incident on that surface.
Refractive
The bending of oblique incident rays as they pass from a medium having one refractive index into a medium with a different refractive index.
Retina
The light-sensitive area on the rear of the human eye containing photo-receptors. The area containing the highest concentration of photo-receptors is called the fovea. See also: Rod, Cone, Fovea.
RGB
Meaning Red, Green & Blue which are the additive primary colors. Used in relation to the human eye’s tristimulus color response. See also: Additive Primary Color.
Rod
The visual receptor in the retina of the human eye responsible for night-time, monochromatic vision. See also: Retina, Cone.
RSS
Diffuse Reflectance Standard Set - Calibrated.
RT
Reflectance Transmittance Sphere

S

Saturation
The attribute of color perception that describes the degree of departure of the color from the neutral grey of the same lightness. See also: Purity.
SC
System Control
Scotopic
The dark-adapted relative spectral response of the eye is called the spectral luminous efficiency function for scotopic vision, V’(l). The scotopic response was first adopted by CIE in 1951 and applies to the spectral region between 380 and 780 nm, with a peak at 507 nm.
SDA
Silicon Detector Assembly
SDM
Spectralon Diffusion Material
SH
Sample Holder.
SI
Systeme Internationale d’Unites, the international metric system of measurement units.
Silicon Photodiode
See Photodiode.
SLMS
Spectral Light Measurement System - used to measure the total spectral flux of light sources
SM-P
Sphere Monitor Photometer
SM-U
Sphere Monitor Radiometer
Solid Angle
See: Steradian.
Spectral Power Distribution (SPD)
The relative power distribution of a light source as a function of wavelength. Determines the color rendering properties of a light source.
Spectral Radiance
Radiance per unit wavelength interval at a given wavelength, expressed in watts per steradian per unit area per wavelength.
Spectrometer
An instrument that separates polychromatic light into its constituent wavelengths. Employs a dispersive optical element, usually a diffraction grating. Employed in spectroradiometers and spectrophotometers.
Spectrophotometer
A measuring instrument that measures the magnitude of light reflected from or transmitted through a material as a function of wavelength.
Spectroradiometer
An instrument for measuring the spectral radiant power from a light source as a function of wavelength. Combines a spectrometer with a photo detector. Can be used to accurately calculate the photometric and colorimetric properties of a light source.
Spectrum
The spectral arrangement of electromagnetic energy in order of wavelength. See also: Spectral Power Distribution (SPD).
Spectrum Locus
The plot of the chromaticity coordinates of monochromatic light in the CIE color space diagram. See also: Chromaticity Diagram (CIE).
Specular
Describing the mirror-like reflection or transmission from or through an object.
SRM
Spectralon® Diffuse Reflectance Material - Optical and Laser Grade
SRS
Spectralon® Diffuse Reflectance Standard
SRT
Spectralon® Diffuse Reflectance Target
Standard Illuminant
See: CIE Standard Illuminant.
Standard Observer
See: CIE Standard Observer Function, Photopic Response.
Steradian
The steradian is the (dimensionless) unit of solid angle. A sphere contains 4p steradians (and by definition, a hemisphere comprises 2p steradians). A steradian is that solid angle subtended from the center of a sphere by a spherical surface area having an area equal to the square of the radius. In other words, the steradian solid angle of a beam of light is equal to the projected area divided by the square of the distance.
Subtractive Primary Color
The subtractive primary colors are Cyan, Magenta & Yellow. When applied to white paper in equal amounts, these combine to produce black. Combining two subtractive primaries in equal amounts creates an additive primary color. See also: CMYK, Additive Primary Color.

T

Thermopile
A broadband detector (thermal rather than optical) that is commonly used in the radiometry of lasers. Comprises an array of thermocouple junctions.
Total Spectral Flux
Total spectral flux is the geometrically total radiant flux of a given bandwidth at a given wavelength, W/nm. This quantity is used to evaluate the total power of light sources at given wavelengths, especially in UV and IR, or to determine the color of light sources. The total spectral radiant flux is commonly measured using an integrating sphere equipped with a spectroradiometer. The integrating sphere, in this case, must be calibrated against a spectral flux standard lamp,
TP
Temperature Probe
TPM
Temperature Probe and Monitor
Transmittance
The percentage of light that transmits through an object. A spectrophotometer determines the transmittance as a function of wavelength. The transmittance from an object is of two types: specular and diffuse.
Tristimulus
Describing the RGB 28 color matching functions, which CIE transformed into the XYZ color matching functions. The XYZ functions define the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer. The Y channel (green) was chosen to match that of the photometric response, so that color measurement instruments could double as photometers. For observer fields of view of greater than 28, CIE published its 1964 supplementary standard colorimetric observer.

U

UCSS
Uncalibrated Color Standards Set
UFSS
Uncalibrated Fluorescent Standards Set
Ultraviolet (UV)
Describing that part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising optical radiation having wavelengths between 100 and 400 nm. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is absorbed in the lens or cornea and is not visible to the naked human eye.
URS
Uniform Radiant Source
URSS
Uncalibrated Diffuse Reflectance Standards Set
US
Uniform Source
USC
Uncalibrated Uniform Source
USCS
Uncalibrated Spectralon® Color Standard
UVA
That part of the Ultraviolet spectral range with wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm.
UVB
That part of the Ultraviolet spectral range with wavelengths between 280 and 315 nm.
UVC
That part of the Ultraviolet spectral range with wavelengths between 100 and 280 nm.

V

V(_) Function
See: Photopic.
Visible (Light)
Describing that part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising optical radiation having wavelengths between 380 and 780 nm that can be detected by the retina in the human eye. Wavelengths in this range combine to create the sensation of color.

W

Watt
The SI unit of power and radiant flux (W).
Wavelength
The periodic peak-to-peak distance in an electromagnetic wave. For ultraviolet and visible light, defined in nanometers (nm); for infrared light, defined in micrometers (µm).
White Light
Light that appears to be white. Can contain a continuous spectrum of light (as from the sun) or comprise as few as two colors. White light comprising two colors exhibits poor color rendering. Light on the Planckian locus (blackbody curve) on the CIE chromaticity diagram with color temperatures between 2500 and 20000K is considered to be “white”. See also: CIE Standard Illuminant.
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